ASU Help Center question mark icon

Steven Neuberg

STEVEN.NEUBERG@asu.edu

Professor
Psychology
Faculty
Mail Code: 1104

PSY B245 (Map)
(480)965-7845

Bio

Professor, Department of Psychology (Social), College of Liberal Arts and Sciences

Education

Ph.D., Carnegie-Mellon University, 1987

Research Interests

Social values and stigma; prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination; motivation influences on cognition; evolutionary approaches to human sociality; religion and conflict.

Websites

Neuberg Lab

Kenrick/Neuberg Social Cognition Lab

Courses

Spring 2014

Courses Taught This Semester
Course Number Course Title
PSY 399 Supervised Research
PSY 499 Individualized Instruction

Fall 2013

Courses Taught This Semester
Course Number Course Title
PSY 399 Supervised Research
PSY 451 Stereotyping/Prejudice/Discrim
PSY 499 Individualized Instruction
PSY 591 Seminar

Spring 2013

Courses Taught This Semester
Course Number Course Title
PGS 399 Supervised Research
PGS 451 Stereotyping/Prejudice/Discrim
PSY 499 Individualized Instruction

Fall 2012

Courses Taught This Semester
Course Number Course Title
PGS 399 Supervised Research
PSY 499 Individualized Instruction
PSY 551 Advanced Social Psychology

Spring 2012

Courses Taught This Semester
Course Number Course Title
PGS 399 Supervised Research
PGS 451 Stereotyping/Prejudice/Discrim
PSY 499 Individualized Instruction

Fall 2011

Courses Taught This Semester
Course Number Course Title
PGS 350 Social Psychology
PGS 399 Supervised Research
PSY 499 Individualized Instruction
PSY 591 Seminar

Spring 2011

Courses Taught This Semester
Course Number Course Title
PGS 399 Supervised Research
PGS 451 Stereotyping/Prejudice/Discrim
PSY 590 Reading and Conference
PSY 591 Seminar
PSY 592 Research
PSY 599 Thesis
PSY 790 Reading and Conference
PSY 792 Research
PSY 799 Dissertation

Fall 2010

Courses Taught This Semester
Course Number Course Title
PGS 399 Supervised Research
PGS 499 Individualized Instruction
PSY 551 Advanced Social Psychology

Spring 2010

Courses Taught This Semester
Course Number Course Title
PGS 399 Supervised Research
PGS 499 Individualized Instruction

Fall 2009

Courses Taught This Semester
Course Number Course Title
PGS 399 Supervised Research
PGS 499 Individualized Instruction

Publications and Other Intellectual ContributionsGoogle Scholar

  1. *Anderson, U.S., *Perea, E. F., Becker, D. V., *Ackerman, J. M., *Shapiro, J. R., Neuberg, S. L., & Kenrick, D. T.. I only have eyes for you: Ovulation redirects attention (but not memory) to attractive men.. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology (2010).

  2. Becker, D.V., *Anderson, U.S., Neuberg, S.L., Maner, J.K., Shapiro, J.R., Ackerman, J.M., Schaller, M., & Kenrick, D.T.. More memory bang for the attentional buck: Self-protection goals enhance encoding efficiency for potentially threatening males. Social Psychological and Personality Science (2010).

  3. Kenrick, D. T., Neuberg, S. L., Griskevicius, V., Becker, D. V., & Schaller, M.. Goal-driven cognition and functional behavior: The fundamental motives framework. Current Directions in Psychological Science (2010).

  4. Shapiro, J. R., Mistler, S. A., & Neuberg, S. L.. Threatened selves and differential prejudice expression by White and Black perceivers.. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology (2010).

  5. Kenrick, D. T., Neuberg, Steven Laurence, Cialdini, R. B.. Social psychology: Goals in interaction. Allyn & Bacon (2010).

  6. Aktipis, C. A., Maley, C. C., & Neuberg. S. L. (2010).. Psychological barriers to evolutionary thinking in medicine.. Evolution and Medicine Review (2010).

  7. Shapiro, J. R., Ackerman, J. M., Neuberg, S. L., Maner, J. K., Becker, D. V., & Kenrick, D. T. Following in the wake of anger: When not discriminating is discriminating.. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin (2009).

  8. Jenessa Shapiro, Steven Neuberg. When do the stigmatized stigmatize? The ironic effects of being accountable to (perceived) majority group prejudice-expression norms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (2008).

  9. Steven Neuberg, Catherine Cottrell. Managing the threats and opportunities afforded by human sociality. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice (2008).

  10. Book chapter: Schaller, M., & Neuberg, S. L.. Intergroup prejudices and intergroup conflicts.. Foundations of evolutionary psychology: Ideas, applications, and applications. Erlbaum (2008).

  11. C Cottrell, Steven Neuberg, N Li. What do people desire in others? A socio functional perspective on the importance of different valued characteristics. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (2007).

  12. D Becker, D Kenrick, Steven Neuberg, K. Blackwell, D Smith. The confounded nature of angry men and happy women. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (2007).

  13. J Shapiro, Steven Neuberg. From stereotype threat to stereotype threats: Implications of a multi-threat framework for causes, moderators, mediators, consequences, and interventions. Personality and Social Psychology Review (2007).

  14. Kenrick, D. T., Neuberg, Steven Laurence, Cialdini, R. B.. Social psychology: Goals in interaction. Allyn & Bacon (2007).

  15. Book chapter: Kenrick, D T,Delton, A W,Robertson, T,Becker, D V,Neuberg, Steven Laurence. How the mind warps: A social evolutionary perspective on cognitive processing disjunctions. The evolution of the social mind: Evolution and social cognition. Psychology Press (2007).

  16. J Ackerman, J Shapiro, Steven Neuberg, D Kenrick, M Schaller, D Becker, V Griskevicius, J Maner. They all look the same to me (unless they're angry): From out-group homogeneity to out-group heterogeneity. Psychological Science (2006).

  17. Book chapter: Cottrell, C A (Author) ,Neuberg, Steven Laurence (Author) . Evolutionary bases of prejudices. Evolution and social psychology. Psychology Press (2006).

  18. C Cottrell, Steven Neuberg. Different emotional reactions to different groups: A socio functional threat-based approach to 'prejudice.'. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (2005).

  19. J Maner, D Kenrick, D Becker, T Robertson, B Hofer, A Delton, Steven Neuberg, J Butner, M Schaller. Functional projection: How fundamental social motives can bias interpersonal perception. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (2005).

  20. Kenrick, D T, Neuberg, Steven Laurence, Cialdini, R B. Social psychology: Unraveling the mystery. Allyn & Bacon (2005).

  21. Book chapter: Handbook of evolutionary psychology. Cambridge U Press (2005).

  22. Book chapter: Kurzban, R (Author) ,Neuberg, Steven Laurence (Author) . Managing ingroup and outgroup relationships. Handbook of evolutionary psychology. John Wiley & Sons (2005).

  23. K Morse, Steven Neuberg. How do holidays influence relationship processes and outcomes? Examining the instigating and catalytic effects of Valentine's Day. Personal Relationships (2004).

  24. M Schaller, J Faulkner, J Park, Steven Neuberg, Douglas Kenrick. Impressions of danger influence impressions of people: An evolutionary perspective on individual and collective cognition. Journal of Cultural and Evolutionary Psychology (2004).

  25. Book chapter: Neuberg, Steven Laurence (Author) ,Kenrick, D T (Author) ,Maner, J K (Author) ,Schaller, M (Author) . From evolved motives to everyday mentation: Evolution, goals, and cognition. Social motivation: Conscious and unconscious processes. Cambridge University Press (2004).

  26. J Maner, Douglas Kenrick, D Becker, A Delton, B Hofer, C Wilbur, Steven Neuberg. Sexually selective cognition: Beauty captures the mind of the beholder. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (2003).

  27. Book chapter: Handbook of evolutionary psychology (2003).

  28. Book chapter: Social motivation: Conscious and unconscious processes. Cambridge University Press (2003).

  29. J Maner, C Luce, Steven Neuberg, Robert Cialdini, S Brown, B Sagarin, W Rice. The effects of perspective taking on motivations for helping: Still no evidence for altruism. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin (2002).

  30. Kenrick, D T, Neuberg, Steven Laurence, Cialdini, R B. Social psychology: Goals in interaction. Allyn & Bacon (2002).

  31. Book chapter: Neuberg, Steven Laurence (Author) ,Cottrell, C A (Author) . Intergroup emotions: A biocultural approach. From prejudice to intergroup emotions: Differentiated reactions to social groups. Psychology Press (2002).

  32. J Biesanz, Steven Neuberg, D Smith, T Asher, T Judice. When accuracy-motivated perceivers fail: Limited attentional capacity and the reemerging self-fulfilling prophecy. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin (2001).

  33. Book chapter: Neuberg, Steven Laurence (Author) ,Smith, D M (Author) ,Asher, T (Author) . Why people stigmatize: Toward a biocultural framework. The social psychology of stigma. Guilford (2000).

Your profile? Go to FAR to control which information is displayed.

Presentations

  1. Pirlott, A. G., & Neuberg, S. L. Beyond sexual prejudice: exploring prejudices against bisexuals lends clarity to prejudices against gay men and lesbian women. the annual meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology Conference, Las Vegas, NV.. (Jan 2010).
  2. Neel, R., & Neuberg, S. L. When does seeing through your eyes help me? Emotions functionally encourage and inhibit perspective taking.. annual meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology Conference, Las Vegas, NV.. (Jan 2010).
  3. Berlin, A., & Neuberg, S. L. Are you stereotyping me? A preliminary look at constructs underlying the desire for impression formation accuracy.. annual meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology Conference, Las Vegas, NV.. (Jan 2010).
  4. Mistler, S. A., Pirlott, A. G., & Neuberg, S. L. Different prejudices toward different types of interracial relationships: Examining alternative explanations.. the annual meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology Conference, Las Vegas, NV.. (Jan 2010).
  5. Mortensen, C. R., Becker, D. V., Ackerman, J. M., Kenrick, D. T., & Neuberg, S. L. Concerns with disease promote functionally adaptive biases in judgments and behaviors.. The annual meeting of Evolutionary Psychology preconference, the Society of Pers. (Jan 2010).
  6. Shapiro, J. R., Neuberg, S. L., & Mistler, S. Converging processes, diverging behaviors: Attributional ambiguity and prejudice expression within white and black perceivers.. symposium, "Contending with discrimination: psychological, neurological, physiological, and behavior. (Jan 2010).
  7. Neuberg, S. L. Toward a functional, affordance-centered model of person perception, prejudices, and social interaction: Taking into account life history and ecological considerations.. Invited colloquium, Center for Behavior, Evolution, and Psychology, UCLA. (Nov 2009).
  8. Neuberg, S. L. Toward a functional, affordance-centered model of person perception, prejudices, and social interaction: Taking into account life history and ecological considerations.. Invited talk, Center for Evolutionary Psychology, UC-SB. (Nov 2009).
  9. Neuberg, S. L. Discriminating affiliations, textured prejudices, and other implications of the human affordance management system.. Invited colloquium, Evolutionary Studies, Department of Biology, University of Binghamton. (Mar 2009).
  10. Mistler, S. A., & Neuberg, S. L. Lay beliefs about the life course of fundamental social goals.. Annual meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology. (Feb 2009).
  11. Pirlott, A. G., & Neuberg, S. L. "Slut," "fag," and "dyke": Situationally sensitive attempts at social control.. Society for Personality and Social Psychology Conference,. (Feb 2009).
  12. Mortensen, C. R., Becker, D. V., Ackerman, J. M., Kenrick, D. T., & Neuberg, S. L. Concerns with disease promote functionally adaptive biases in judgments and behaviors. Annual Meeting of the Society of Personality and Social Psychology. (Feb 2009).
  13. Berlin, A. & Neuberg S. L. Lay beliefs about situations that produce stereotyping: A comparison to empirical research.. Society for Personality and Social Psychology Annual Conference. (Feb 2009).
  14. Mortensen, C. R., Becker, D. V., Ackerman, J. A., Neuberg, S. L., & Kenrick, D. T. Magnetic personalities: Ostracism and disease concerns produce attractive and repulsive functionally-biased first impressions.. Annual Meeting of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society, Kyoto, Japan.. (Jun 2008).
  15. Perea, E., F., Anderson, U. S., Mortensen, C. R., Neuberg, S. L., & Kenrick, D. T. Revenge-biased cognition.. Annual Meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Albuquerque, NM. (Feb 2008).
  16. Ackerman, J. M., Shapiro, J. R., Becker, D. V., Neuberg, S. L., & Kenrick, D. T. An evolutionary perspective on intergroup threat detection.. Annual Meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Albuquerque, NM.. (Feb 2008).
  17. Richeson, J. A., & Neuberg, S. L. "Taking a relational approach to intergroup contact: When stigmatized and non-stigmatized group members’ experiences diverge and converge,". Annual Meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Albuquerque, NM.. (Feb 2008).
  18. Shapiro, J. R., & Neuberg, S. L. Perceiving White norms: Ironic effects in Blacks’ versus Whites’ judgments of minority targets. Annual Meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Albuquerque, NM. (Feb 2008).
  19. Cohen, A. B., & Neuberg, S. L. The psychological omnipresence of religion. Annual Meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Albuquerque, NM.. (Feb 2008).
  20. Neuberg, S. L. Toward understanding the effects of religion on intergroup conflict.. Annual Meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Albuquerque, NM.. (Feb 2008).
  21. Ackerman, J, Shapiro, J, Neuberg, Steven, Kenrick, D When do they and when do we all look the same to me? Understanding heterogeneity and homogeneity effects. Annual Meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology. (Jan 2007).
  22. Neuberg, Steven Controversies and New Directions in Stereotype Threat Theory. Annual Meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology. (Jan 2007).
  23. Neuberg, Steven Dehumanization as the worst kind of prejudice. Annual Meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology. (Jan 2007).
  24. Perea, E, Neuberg, Steven Functional friendships: Women want loyalists, men want specialists. Poster presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology. (Jan 2007).
  25. Shapiro, J, Neuberg, Steven From stereotype threat to stereotype threats: A multi-threat framework; Controversies and New Directions in Stereotype Threat Theory. Annual Meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology. (Jan 2007).
  26. Becker, D, Neuberg, Steven, Kenrick, D Disjunction-Junction, What's your Function? Picking up information relevant to fundamental motivations. Annual convention of the Association for Psychological Science. (May 2006).
  27. Cottrell, C, Neuberg, Steven Why different groups view one another differently: Evidence from a national sample of European Americans, African Americans, and Asian Americans. Annual meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology. (Jan 2006).
  28. Duncan, L, Park, J, Faulkner, J, Schaller, M, Neuberg, Steven, Kenrick, D Socio sexual orientation and visual attention to attractive men and women. Annual meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology. (Jan 2006).
  29. Shapiro, J, Ackerman, J, Neuberg, Steven, Kenrick, D We all look harmless and they all look threatening: Contrast and assimilation effects for in-group and out-group threat perceptions. Annual conference of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology. (Jan 2006).
  30. Neuberg, Steven, Cottrell, C A socio functional approach to intergroup relations. Annual conference of the Society of Experimental Social Psychology. (Oct 2005).
  31. Neuberg, Steven, Schaller, M The nature in prejudice(s). Invited paper presented at the conference: Looking toward the future: Discrimination and prejudice in the 21st century. (Sep 2005).
  32. Becker, D, Blackwell, K, Kenrick, D, Neuberg, Steven The confounded nature of angry men and happy women. The annual convention of the American Psychological Society. (May 2005).
  33. Cottrell, C, Neuberg, Steven What impressions do people want to convey to other? A socio functional analysis of valued self-presentations. The annual convention of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology. (Jan 2005).
  34. Neuberg, Steven Discriminating sociality: A socio functional approach to intra group and intergroup relations. Evolutionary Psychology Pre-Conference, annual convention of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology. (Jan 2005).
  35. Ackerman, J, Shapiro, J, Becker, D, Hofer, B, Neuberg, Steven, Kenrick, D Safety or romance? The asymmetry of fundamental motivations on memory for faces. The annual convention of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology. (Jan 2005).
  36. Shapiro, J, Neuberg, Steven From stigmatized to empathizer or from stigmatized to stigmatizer? The effects of perceived majority group norms on the expression and suppression of prejudice. The annual convention of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology. (Jan 2005).
  37. Neuberg, Steven, Schaller, M The nature of prejudice(s): Evolution, stigma, and intergroup relations. Advances in evolutionary social psychology, 28th International Congress of Psychology. (Aug 2004).
  38. Neuberg, Steven Exploring self and social identity processes in stereotype threat. Western Psychological Association. (Apr 2004).
  39. Neuberg, Steven Stereotype threat or stereotype threats? Why a more textured conceptualization of stereotype threat may be useful; Exploring self and social identity processes in stereotype threat. Annual convention of the Western Psychological Association. (Apr 2004).
  40. Wilbur, C, Shapiro, J, Neuberg, Steven Different prejudices from different threats: A socio functional analysis of intergroup relations. Annual convention of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology. (Jan 2004).

Your profile? You control what’s displayed. Customize your information.

Research Activity Research Awards

  1. White,Dave Douglas * , Anselin,Luc E , Balling,Robert C , Basile,George Matthew , Basile,George Matthew , Brazel,Anthony J , Eakin,Hallie C , Ellis,Andrew Walton , Elser,Monica Mueller , Elser,Monica Mueller , Gammage,Grady , Gober,Patricia , Gober,Patricia , Guhathakurta,Subhrajit , Guhathakurta,Subhrajit , Kenrick,Douglas T , Kirkwood,Craig William , Lant,Timothy W , Larson,Kelli Leigh , Larson,Kelli Leigh , Ledlow,Susan Elizabeth , Murray,Alan Todd , Nelson,Margaret C , Neuberg,Steven Laurence , Redman,Charles L , Redman,Charles L , Smith,Vincent Kerry , Turner II,Billie Lee , Wentz,Elizabeth Ann , Westerhoff,Paul , Wiek,Arnim , Wutich,Amber Yoder , York,Abigail , . Decision Center for a Desert City II - Urban Climate Adaptation. NSF-SES (9/15/2010 - 8/31/2015).
  2. Cohen,Adam * , Enders,Craig Kyle , Neuberg,Steven Laurence , . Ethnic and Religious Influences on Forgiveness for Mass Atrocities. NSF-SBE (2/15/2010 - 1/31/2012).
  3. Kenrick,Douglas T * Neuberg,Steven Laurence . Fundamental Goals and Decision Making. NSF-ENG-BCS (7/15/2009 - 6/30/2013).
  4. Neuberg,Steven Laurence * , Broome,Benjamin J , Millsap,Roger E , Schaefer,David , Schober,Juliane S , Taylor,Thomas J , Thomas,George , Warner,Carolyn , Winkelman,Michael James , . AOC-The Dynamics of Religion and Conflict: A Multidisciplinary, Emperical Approach. NSF-SBE (1/1/2008 - 12/31/2011).
  5. Becker,David Vaughn * Kenrick,Douglas T Neuberg,Steven Laurence . Toward A Functionalist Psychophysics of Social Perception. NSF-SBE (5/1/2007 - 4/30/2011).
  6. Kenrick,Douglas T * Neuberg,Steven Laurence . Fundamental Goals and Social Perception. HHS-NIH-NIMH (6/1/2006 - 3/31/2011).
  7. Kenrick,Douglas T * Neuberg,Steven Laurence . Goal-Driven Perception and Cognition in Complex Social Environments. DOD-ARMY RESEARCH INSTITUTE (1/3/2005 - 7/2/2008).
  8. Kenrick,Douglas T * Neuberg,Steven Laurence . FUNDAMENTAL GOALS & SOCIAL PERCEPTION. HHS-NIH-NIMH (7/1/2002 - 6/30/2006).
  9. Neuberg,Steven Laurence * . SOCIAL GOALS AS MODERATORS OF EXPECTANCY CONFIRMATION. HHS-NIH-NIMH (8/1/1994 - 7/31/1999).
  10. Neuberg,Steven Laurence * . SOCIAL GOALS AS MODERATORS OF EXPECTANCY CONFIRMATION. HHS-NIH-NIMH (4/1/1990 - 7/31/1993).

* principal investigator

Your profile? You control what’s displayed. Customize your information.

Service

  1. Various scientific psychology journals, granting agencies (e.g., NSF), Ad hoc reviewer (2006 - present)
  2. Various scientific psychology journals, granting agencies (e.g., NSF), Ad hoc reviewer (2006 - present)
  3. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Editorial Board (2004 - present)
  4. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Editorial Board (2003 - present)
  5. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, editorial board (2009 - 2014)
  6. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Editorial Board (2004 - 2012)
  7. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Editorial Board (2003 - 2012)
  8. Center for Study of Religion and Conflict, Member, Faculty Advisory Committee (2005 - 2011)
  9. Center for Study of Religion and Conflict, Member, Faculty Advisory Committee (2005 - 2010)
  10. Various local and national media outlets, Expert consultation (2009)
  11. Center for Study of Religion and Conflict, Member, Faculty Advisory Committee (2005 - 2009)
  12. Graduate Studies Committee, Member (2006 - 2009)
  13. Social Psychology Graduate Program, Director (2006 - 2009)
  14. Various local and national media outlets, Expert consultation (2008)
  15. Faculty Development Program, Mentor for junior faculty members (2004 - 2008)
  16. Center for Social Dynamics and Complexity, Member, steering committee (2005 - 2008)
  17. Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues (SPSSI), Dissertation Award Committee (2005 - 2006)
  18. Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues (SPSSI), Member, Dissertation Award Committee (2005 - 2006)
  19. School of Social and Family Dynamics, Reviewer for School opening research competition (2006)
  20. Psychology/Planning and Advisory Committee, Elected member (2005 - 2006)
  21. Institutional Review Board, Member (2004 - 2006)
  22. National Institute of Mental Health for "Translational Research: Bridging Basic and Applied Perspectives", Invited consultant (2006)
  23. Social Psychology Search Committee, Chair (2005 - 2006)
  24. Centers for Resilience and Stigma, National Institute of Mental Health, Grant Review Panel (2005)
  25. National Science Foundation, Reviewer (2005)
  26. Numerous local and national media outlets, Expert consultation (2005)
  27. Faculty Development Program, Mentor for junior faculty member (2004 - 2005)
  28. ASU Social Science Graduate Research Symposium, Keynote speaker (2005)
  29. Ad hoc committee for Psych 100 subject pool, Member (2004)
  30. Psychology/Department Development Committee, Chair (2003 - 2004)
  31. Various local media outlets, Expert consultation (2003 - 2004)
  32. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Associate Editor (2001 - 2003)
  33. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology; Journal of Personality and Social Cognition, Nominated for Editorships (ended 2003)
  34. Peggy Payne Academy, Visiting speaker (ended 2003)
  35. Undergraduate Studies Committee, Member (ended 2003)
  36. Society for Personality and Social Psychology 2003 Annual Conference, Member, Program Committee (2002)
  37. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Editorial Board (2000 - 2002)
  38. Risk, Prevention, and Health Behavior, Committee 4, National Institutes of Health, Grant Review Panel (1999 - 2000)

Your profile? You control what’s displayed. Customize your information.

Areas of Expertise

Media Expert

Spoken Languages:

Expertise in:
  • Psychology; Social Psychology, prejudice and stereotyping, evolutionary psychology